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What is a Cooling Tower?

What is a Cooling Tower?

In large industrial operations, power plants, refineries and etc. heat is generated and water is used to cool down devices in these systems and receive the excess heat. A device is needed that can cool down the water and return it to the system. For this purpose we use cooling towers. A Cooling tower is required, in almost all industrial units for the continuity of the production process.

In a cooling process, cooling tower transfers the excess heat from circulating water to the environment. Quality and cost of the tower depends on the accuracy and the amount of the heat transfer. In Heating and cooling systems, this device also helps chillers to shed their unwanted heat.

The main components of a cooling tower as a whole, includes the following:

 

  • Casing or body
  • Basin
  • Water distribution system
  • Air moving system
  • Fill media

 

 

Casing or Body

Body of the tower is made from fiberglass or composite materials that are called FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester) and their raw materials includes resins and fibers. These materials are corrosion free and stabilized against sun light and ultra violet radiation. When the resins are still in liquid form, Color is added to the fiber and resin mixture and the tower is produced self-colored and lasts up to 30 years.

 

Basin

Lower part of a cooling tower’s body where the cooled water is collected is called basin. By the use of flanges and connecting pipes connected to external piping, water is sent again to the system to continue the cooling process.

 

Water distribution system

This system is used to transfer and distribute the hot water entering the tower over the heat transfer elements (fill media) for cooling. This system includes:

  • Internal piping
  • Sprinkler head – sprinkler arms
  • Nozzles
  • Drift eliminators

Hot water is transferred to the center of a tower by inlet pipes that are made from high-quality and high-pressure PVC, then the sprinkler head that is made of ABS or brass and aluminum alloys, divides the water flow evenly and forwards it to the sprinkler arms that are made of PVC. Then sprinkler arms pour out the water evenly over fill media with a correct angle. The water, after passing through the fill media and doing the cooling process is collected in the Basin. Drift eliminators, are used to collect the water droplets that are sucked by the driving force and return them to the cooling cycle.

 

Air moving system

The air moving system includes an electro motor and a fan. The Electro motor (produced by reputable companies such as Siemens, VEM and Hyundai) is used to rotate the fan. Fan moves the air upwards through the fill media from Louvers that are located on the body of a tower. The fan blades are made of FRP and are low weight. Air Foil shape of the blades, allow them to produce more airflow in lower speed that increases efficiency and reduces the noise.

 

Fill media (Heat transfer elements)    

Heat transfer elements or Packing is where the distributed water by sprinklers and the sucked air from louvers, meet and then they transfer the heat with each other and some of the water evaporates. Maximizing evaporation means maximizing the tower`s capability. Parto Abgardan cooling towers are utilized by the last generation of film type PVC honey comb fill media, this packings has high heat transfer efficiency. These elements transform the water flow to a very thin layer of water with maximum surface so air and water can exchange heat. Also the PVC films have wavy shapes and textured surfaces to reduce the speed of water flow and it allows more time for the heat exchange process. If the water flow operates properly (using soft water in Makeup Water) these elements will last for 10 to 15 years.

All bolts and washers that used in a tower are made of hot galvanized or stainless steel. other supportive metal parts are made of hot galvanized steel or stainless steel with a thickness of 83 microns. In special orders, we use fiberglass holders that are made with the pultrusion method.

Regard to customers special conditions or orders, thetoweralso has the possibility to use electrical and electroniccontrollerstoimprove performanceand coordination between the towerand otherdevicesinoperation system. These components arevariablefrequency drive (VFD)or Inverter, temperature sensor, monitorsand etc.

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